Niobium is mainly used in the production of high-grade & high strength low alloy structural steel. It is an effective microalloying element for steel. Adding niobium to the steel causes the formation of niobium carbide andniobium nitride within the structure of the steel. These compounds improve the grain refining, retardation of recrystallization, and precipitation hardening of the steel. These effects in turn increase the toughness, strength, formability, and weldability of the microalloyed steel.